Explaining Sympathetic Actions

Timotheus Kampik
Juan Carlos Nieves
Helena Lindgren
Umeå University


* Motivation * Goals for Sympathetic Actions * Explanation Types * Towards Empirical Assessment * Ongoing Work * Future Work


* *Bounded rationality* has strong influence on economics, psychology, and AI * Empirical: Kahneman * Theoretical: Simon, Rubinstein * Design agents of bounded rationality in the context of explainability * Focus on *empathy* (altruism)
Kahneman. Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics. 2003. Rubinstein. Modeling bounded rationality. 1998. Simon. Models of bounded rationality: Empirically grounded economic reason. 1997.

Goals for Sympathetic Actions

* Altruistic/utilitarian preferences * Establishing or following a norm/encouraging sympathetic actions from others * Compromising in case no equilibrium strategy exists

Explanation Types

* No Explanation. * Provide a *clue* (that hints at the favor). * Explain *that* (a favor is provided). * Explain *why* (a favor is provided, norm). * Explain *why* (a favor is provided, consequence).

Towards Empirical Assessment I

* Human-robot ultimatum game * 6 rounds * Roles switch every round * 100 coins to share per round * Two modes, randomly selected per participant: *explanations*, *no explanations* * $n = 19$

Towards Empirical Assessment II

* Robot is rational acceptance, but *sympathetic* in proposals * #Rejections per game * #Coins optained by human and agent * Reported *niceness* of robot (scale: 1-5)

Towards Empirical Assessment III


Towards Empirical Assessment IV


Towards Empirical Assessment V


Towards Empirical Assessment VI


Ongoing Work

* Scale study => Port study application to web * Test different modes

Future Work

* Learning agents that facilitate sympathetic actions * $n$-agent scenarios

Thank you!


*This work was partially supported by the Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP) funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.*